History Pages - Part 11

The Prophet Mohammed and the Rise of Islam

AD 600-800


 

AD 570-632
The Prophet Mohammed of Islam
AD 600-700
Slavic invasions of Northern Byzantine regions; Slavs eventually migrated into, but did not rule, southern Greece. In Greece - Widespread civil war and invasions by Persians, Arabs and Slavs
AD 600-1300
The Jewish Rabbinic Geonim (Gaons) - scholars and interpreters of Jewish Law
AD 609
The Pantheon (pagan temple) in Rome renamed the Church of Santa Maria Rotonda
AD 610
Call of the Prophet Mohammed - his vision of the Angel Gabriel in the cave of Hira, and descent of the Quran
AD 610-641
Reign of Emperor Heraclius - made Greek the official language of the Byzantine Empire. The Empire in great danger : Avars, Slavs and Bulgars overran the Balkans, and Persians invaded the eastern provinces
AD 614
Persians invaded and took Jerusalem, Damascus, and the "Holy Cross of Christ" from the Byzantine Empire; allowed Jews back, but drove them out again 3 years later
AD 615
Earliest records of some of the Prophet Mohammed's teachings
AD 616
Persians overran Egypt
AD 622
The Hegira - Flight of the Prophet Mohammed from Medina to Mecca - Year 1 of the Muslim Calendar, 1 a.h. (anno hegirae)
AD 622-680
The Monothelite controversy, which was condemned by the 6th Ecumenical Council of Constantinople
AD 624
Prophet Mohammed married Aysha, the 10-year old daughter of Abu Bekr
AD 624-627
Prophet Mohammed attacked and destroyed Jewish Arabians who did not convert to Islam
AD 625
Prophet Mohammed began to dictate the Quran
Brahmagupta, Indian mathematician and teacher at Ujjain
Paulinus of Rome went as a missionary to Northumbria
AD 626
Edwin of Northumbria founded Edinburgh, set about bringing Christianity to his people
First great siege of Constantinople, by the Avars, and the Persians under Shahen
AD 627
Byzantines defeated Persians at Nineveh
AD 628
Prophet Mohammed captured Mecca, and wrote to all the rulers of the world, explaining Islam
Heraclius defeated the Persians and brought back "The Cross of Christ", perhaps the first full-fledged crusade
AD 629
Heraclius recovered Jerusalem from Persians
The title Basileus was taken by the Emperor Heraclius, just after the final Persian defeat. A sign of the Oriental influences in the Byzantine court; Pope Honorius I sided with Emperor Heraclius and the Monothelites
AD 630
The Arab (Islamic) Conquest of the Middle East began
AD 632
Christianity brought to East Anglia
Death of Prophet Mohammed. Abu Bekr, father-in-law of Prophet Mohammed, became the first of the "rightly guided caliphs" of Islam; Medina became the seat of the "rightly guided caliphs" Fatima, youngest daughter of Prophet Mohammed, was the ancestress of the House of the Fatimids. Her sons were Hassan and Hussein
AD 632-732
Arab conquest of the Middle East, North Africa, Spain and Southern France
AD 633
Moslem invasion of Antioch, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Persia
AD 634
Omar I, the second Caliph, took Syria, Persia, and Egypt, and defeated Heraclius in Holy War
AD 635
Christianity brought to Wessex
AD 635-750
Damascus became the capital of the Caliphs
AD 636
Battle of Yarmuk - Arabs defeated the Byzantine army, took Syria and Palestine
Persian Zoroastrians fled to India, settled there
The southern Irish Church submitted to Roman Catholicism
Building of the church at Glastonbury (on the site reputed to have been founded by Joseph of Arimathea, and the burial place of King Arthur)
Building of the church at St. Albans (site of the first Christian martyrs)
AD 636-1,099
First Muslim Period in Israel/Palestine
ca. AD 637
French and German diverged into separate languages
AD 638
Omar I captured Jerusalem, left the Christian shrines alone, started to build on the Temple Mount (derelict since the Roman destruction of AD 135), and permitted Jews to return to Jerusalem
The emperor Heraclius wrote the "Ecthesis", which claimed that Christ had only one "nature" - the Monothelite heresy
AD 640
Aidan went as a missionary to Northumbria
AD 641
Arab Conquest of Egypt, led by Omar I
The School of Alexandria was destroyed, and the Library of Alexandria, "The Center of Western Culture", with 300,000 scrolls, burned to the ground
Death of Emperor Heraclius; the Byzantine Empire was reduced to Asia Minor, the Balkan coastline, north Africa and Sicily
AD 641-668
Emperor Constans II, grandson of Heraclius. The bulk of his reign was occupied with wars against the Arabs. He was murdered in Sicily
AD 642
Omar I conquered the Persian Empire, drove out Zoroastrianism, introduced Islam, and set up a Caliphate which lasted until 1258
AD 645
Anglo-Saxon king Ethelhere died and was buried in a ship with treasure at Sutton Hoo in Suffolk - excavated in 1939
AD 648
Arabs took Cyprus
AD 650
Introduction of Neumes for writing groups of musical notes
Caliph Othman collected the Quran into 114 chapters
AD 658
Omayyad dynasty began in Damascus
AD 661
Ali (last of the four "rightly guided caliphs") assassinated
AD 664
Council of Whitby - to settle differences between Roman and Eastern Christian practices in Britain. King Oswy of Northumbria was persuaded to adopt the Roman traditions
AD 669
Theodore of Tarsus, Archbishop of Canterbury, re-organized the Church in England
Arabs attacked Constantinople
AD 670
Arab invasion of Africa
AD 671
Caedmon, first Christian English Poet and Song-writer, born. Lived as a cow-herd at Whitby Abbey until his talents were discovered by Hilda of Whitby, who arranged for his education
AD 672-735
The Venerable Bede - English monk, historian, and translator of parts of the New Testament
AD 673-754
Boniface, missionary to the Germans, murdered 754
AD 674-678
Second siege of Constantinople by the Arabs
AD 675-749
John of Damascus, Christian scholar
AD 679
Bulgars (a Hunnish tribe) invaded the Byzantine Empire and settled south of the Danube
AD 680
Seventh Ecumenical Council convened in Constantinople. Condemned Monophysitism and Monothelitism, and affirmed that Christ is of two wills and two energies without division, alteration, separation or confusion. An appendix to this Council, the Synod in Trullo, drew up what became the constitution and rule of the Byzantine Church. The Monophysite churches of Armenia, Syria and Egypt seceded
Massacre of Ali's son Husayn and the Shiites in Iraq
AD 688-741
Charles Martel - "The Hammer"
ca. AD 690
The earliest Bible translations into England's vernacular, with continued work by Bede and others from that time on
AD 691
Construction of the Dome of the Rock on the Temple Mount by Caliph Abd-al-Malik
AD 692
The Quinisext Coucil at Constantinople settled the Canon of the Bible for the Eastern Church - the Council was not recognized by the Roman Church
AD 697
Carthage fell to the Arabs as they advanced towards Spain
AD 699
Arabs overran Armenia
AD 700
The Psalms translated into Anglo-Saxon
The Lindisfarne Gospels - illuminated book of manuscript Gospels, still in existence
AD 711
Arab Moslems invaded Spain, allowed Jews to live and study freely
AD 712
Moslem state set up in India
AD 715
The Moslem empire extended from the Pyrenees to China, with Damascus as its capital;
Boniface started his missionary work in Germany
AD 717-718
Third siege of Constantinople
AD 720
The Iconoclasts - "Image breakers" - did not allow the use of images in Byzantine Churches
Arabs invaded France, captured Narbonne
AD 725
Boniface chopped down the sacred Donar oak tree at Fritzlar in Hesse, and the Germanic tribes accepted Christianity
Charles Martel conquered Bavaria
AD 726
King Ine of Wessex introduced "Peter's Pence", a tax intended to support a College in Rome. This tax became a major grievance between the English and the Roman Churches
Controversy about Images, Emperor Leo III forbade the worship of icons and followed it with the general destruction of icons representing Christ and the saints. His original motive was probably theological, but the movement became an attack on the Church, and particularly the monasteries whose power was aided by their possession of holy pictures. The icons were replaced by symbols, such as the Cross. Iconoclasm met with passionate resistance. Riots in Constantinople. The Iconoclastic conflict continued until AD 843
Patriarchates of Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria under Arab rule
AD 730
Pope Gregory III excommunicated the Byzantine Emperor Leo III
The Venerable Bede wrote the "Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum" - Ecclesiastical History of the English People
AD 732
Battle of Tours - Charles Martel led the French forces and won the Battle against Moslem invaders - this stopped the Moslem advance into Europe
AD 735
Charles Martel conquered Burgundy
AD 735-804
Alcuin - monk, historian, reformer
AD 742-814
Charlemange of France, grandson of Charles Martel, Holy Roman Emperor of Europe, protected Jews in his kingdom
AD 740-1,259
Jewish Kingdom of Khazar - stood against Moslems, Byzantines, and Russians, until taken by Genghis Khan
AD 750
First recorded use of hops for brewing beer - in Bavaria
AD 750-900
The Pueblo Period in North America
AD 750-1,258
The Abbasids destroyed the Omayyads, and become Islamic Caliphs of Baghdad - the "Golden Age" of Islamic culture
AD 751
Battle of Samarkand - Arabs defeated Chinese, and captured some Chinese paper manufacturers, who taught the Arabs the art of making paper
Islam developed four sects - Hafenites, Malikites, Shafites, Sunnites
AD 759
The Franks recaptured Narbonne from the Arabs
AD 760
Jewish Karaite sect founded by Anan Ben David; accepted only the Biblical writings, did not accept the Oral Law
Turkish Empire founded in Armenia by Tartars
Arabic Numerals in use
AD 766
Alcuin made York a center for learning
AD 778
Basques defeated the army of Charlemagne at Roncesvalles in the Pyrenees - the leaders Roland and Oliver became the subjects of "The Song of Roland"
AD 780-802
Byzantine Empress Irene, restored adoration of images in the Eastern Church
AD 782
Alcuin left York and went to the court of Charlemagne to help develop schools and learning
AD 786-809
Harun al-Rashid, Caliph of the Abbasids - "Golden Period of Arab Learning"
AD 787
Eighth Ecumenical Council was convened in Nikaia by Empress Irene, condemned Iconoclasm and restored the use of icons
Danes started to invade England
AD 792
Vikings started to attack Britain
AD 795
Cynewulf, Anglo-Saxon Christian poet
AD 796
Alcuin became head of the University of Tours
AD 800
Charlemagne crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III, December 25, in Rome
The Synod of Aix-la-Chapelle introduced the "Filioque"; ("and the Son", referring to the Holy Spirit proceeding from the Father) into the Creed. This became a major cause of dissension between Eastern and Western Churches
Haroun Al-Raschid sent an Embassy to the court of Charlemagne

Main Sources : Smithsonian Timelines of Ancient History, The Timetables of History (Bernard Grun)

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Copyright © 1999 Shirley J. Rollinson, all Rights Reserved

Dr. Rollinson

Station 19
ENMU
Portales, NM 88130

Last Updated: June 8, 2010

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