History Pages - Part 5

The Divided Monarchy - ca. 931 - 586 BC


All dates, particularly the earlier ones, are approximate
References to "ANET" are to the book "Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament" edited by James B. Pritchard

Technological level
in Middle East
Mesopotamia Rome Mainland Greece
Iron Age II B& C 900-612 BC Neo-Assyrian Period
612-538 BC Neo-Babylonian Period
753-510 BC Royal Period
(the seven kings of Rome)
800-500 BC Archaic Period
The Divided Monarchy
Judah Prophets Israel Elsewhere
931-913 Rehoboam Ahijah


a "man of God"
931-910 Jeroboam I chose Shechem as his first capital, later moved to Tirzah 935-914 BC Sheshonq I (Shishak) of Egypt, invaded Israel and carried off treasures from the Temple
913-911 Abijah  
911-870 Asa   910-909 Nadab (son of Jeroboam)  
Jehu, son of Hanani 909-886 Baasha (killed Nadab) 900-800 BC Etruscans settled in Italy, introduced horse-drawn chariots
900-800 BC Carthage founded by Phoenicians
900-800 BC Chaldean invasion of Mesopotamia
  886-885 Elah (son of Baasha)  
  885 Zimri (killed Elah) reigned 7 days, committed suicide
Omri chosen as king by some of the people
  885-880(?) war between Tibni and Omri  
  885-874 Omri (killed Tibni)
879 Omri moved the capital of Israel from Tirzah to his new city of Samaria
880-842 BC Ben-hadad I of Damascus
883-859 BC Ashurnazipal II of Assyria
859-824 BC Shalmanezer III of Assyria
Assyrians conquered most of Mesopotamia, developed the policy of deporting conquered peoples to other lands to prevent nationalistic revolts
853 BC Battle of Karkar in Syria - Shalmanezer recorded that at that battle "10,000 foot soldiers of Ahab the Israelite" along with soldiers from 11 other kings, fought against him. (ANET 278-79)
Assyrians destroyed the city of Babylon, and made Nineveh their capital. They later thought that the god Marduk was angry with them for destroying his city, and rebuilt Babylon
Mesha of Moab. The "Moabite Stone" with the claim that Mesha broke free of Israel during the reign of Ahab
"sons of the prophets"
874-853 Ahab (son of Omri) killed in battle
Jezebel as queen

Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, married Jehoram, crown prince of Judah
870-848 Jehoshaphat
853-851 Ahaziah
(son of Ahab) accidental death
853(coregency)-841 Jehoram (Joram)
married to Athaliah, daughter of Ahab
"sons of the prophets"
852-841 Joram (Jehoram)
(another son of Ahab) killed by Jehu
841 Ahaziah
(son of Jehoram and Athaliah) killed by Jehu
841 BC Shalmanezer III of Assyria invaded Damascus and Israel, and exacted tribute from Jehu. The "Black Obelisk" of Shalmanezer (now in the British Museum) shows a king identified as Jehu, kneeling before Shalmanezer, and claims "the tribute of Jehu, son of Omri : I recieved from him silver, gold, a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin, a staff for a king, . . . " (ANET 281) "son of Omri" - Shalmanezer was either not aware of the details of Jehu's accession, or was using the term to mean that Jehu was ruling the region that Omri used to dominate
842-806 BC Hazael of Damascus
841 Queen Athaliah (killed all the royal family except Jehosheba and Joash) 841-814 Jehu (killed Joram & Ahaziah)
835-796 Joash (Jehoash) (son of Ahaziah) assassinated  
  814-798 Jehoahaz (son of Jehu) 813 BC Foundation of Carthage as a Phoenician colony and center for trade in the Mediterranean

803 BC Adad-nirari III of Assyria invaded Syria (ANET 281-82)
800 BC Greece began to recover from the "Dark Ages". Foundation of "city-states"
Foundation of Greek colonies around the Mediterranean
796-767 Amaziah
ca. 792 taken prisoner by Jehoash of Israel
767 assassinated
  798-782 Jehoash (Joash) (son of Jehoahaz)  
792(regency)-740 Uzziah (Azariah)
750 became a leper
793(co regency)-753 Jeroboam II 776BC to 393AD - Olympic Games
753 Zachariah (son of Jeroboam II) reigned 6 months 753 BC (by tradition) Romulus founded Rome, introduced a calendar with 10 months in the year
752 Shallum (killed Zachariah) reigned 1 month 750 First examples of inscriptions in Hellenic Greek alphabet
750-725 the Iliad put into writing
743-713 the Odyssey put into writing
752-742 Menahem (killed Shallum) Assyrians began to adopt Aramaic as their language
750-650 Hoplite phalanx adopted by cities of southern Greece. Previously fighting was carried out by a relatively few warriors, often in single combat, using shield, sword and spear, with no armor. Hoplites had defensive armor and fought in close formation - a series of rows, called a phalanx.
750-550 First period of Hellenic colonization - Marseilles, Asia Minor, Black Sea
736-716 First Messinian war, in the Peloponnese of Greece
734 Chalcis of Euboea founded Naxus, the first Greek colony in Sicily
733 Greek colony of Syracuse in Sicily established by Corinth
740-732 Rezin of Damascus
745-727 "Pul" (Tiglath-pileser III) of Assyria
727-722 BC Shalmanezer V of Assyria, invaded Israel
742-740 Pekahiah (son of Menahem)
750 (co-regency)-732 Jotham 752 (disputed claim to kingship)-732 Pekah (killed Pekahiah)
735 (co-regency)-716 Ahaz 732-722 Hoshea (killed Pekah)
727 (co-regency)-698 Hezekiah
701 Sennacherib of Assyria invaded Judah and besieged Jerusalem. Hezekiah built a water-tunnel and withstood the siege

722 BC Fall of Samaria to Shalmaneser V and/or Sargon II, kings of Assyria
End of the Northern Kingdom

The Israelite people were taken into captivity in Assyria, and became "the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel"

Various conquered peoples were moved into the area by the Assyrians. They became the "Samaritans"

722-705 BC Sargon II of Assyria, conquered the Hittites, the Chaldeans, and Samaria
705-681 BC Sennacherib of Assyria
721-710 BC Merodach-baladan king of Babylonia, split from the Assyrian empire. 710 BC Sargon regained control of Babylon. Merodach-baladan fled to Elam until 701 BC when he claimed Babylon again. 700 BC Sennacherib ousted Merodach-baladan, who fled to Elam once more, and died ca. 694 BC
701 BC Sennacherib of Assyria invaded Judah, laid siege to Jerusalem. Sennacherib's accounts of the campaign are given on the "Sennacherib Prism" (now in the Oriental Institute, University of Chicago) and the "Taylor Prism" (now in the British Museum)

715-672 BC Numa Pompilius, second king of Rome, added January and February to Romulus' 10-month calendar
700 BC Hesiod, Greek epic poet, wrote Theogony, on the Origins of the Gods, and Works and Days, and advice for the working man
690-664 BC Pharaoh Tirhakah of Egypt's 25th (Ethiopian) dynasty (defeated at Eltekeh by Sennacherib)
698-643 Manasseh
652-647 prisoner in Assyria
  681-669 BC Esarhaddon of Assyria (son of Sennacherib)
669-633 BC Asshurbanipal of Assyria (son of Esarhaddon) began to assemble a library in Nineveh of all the literature of Mesopotamia (30,000 tablets from this library have been uncovered)
652 BC Ashurbanipal took Manasseh as a prisoner to Assyria

ca. 660 BC Jewish settlement in Elephantine (Egypt)

657 BC Byzantium (Constantinople) founded by sailors from Megara in Greece

ca. 650 BC Zarathustra (Zoroaster) founded Zoroastrianism, a dualistic religion which inspired the Persians to a program of conquest. The Persians were an Indo-European people living to the north of the Persian Gulf, away from the main areas of political unrest and war. Within 100 years of Zoroaster's teaching, the Persians, under Cyrus, founded a great empire and set about trying to conquer the whole world for Zoroastrianism

ca. 650 BC Celts in Central and Western Europe
643-641 Amon assassinated Zephaniah

640 BC Sparta (in Greece) developed a military system of society (to keep their slaves from revolting and overwhelming them). Sparta had a council of 2 Kings and 28 other leaders, called the Gerousia ("old men"). The 28 old men had to be at least 60 years old, were chosen by the public assembly and held office for the rest of their lives. There was also another group of executives, the five ephors, elected annually by public acclamation
632 BC Monarchy in Athens replaced by the Council of Areopagus, wealthy aristocrats, and an annual board of nine archons who were elected by the Council of Areopagus.
640-560 BC Solon of Athens, reformed the system of law
641-609 Josiah 626 BC Scythians (semi-nomadic fighters from what is now Armenia) invaded Syria, Palestine and Assyria
626-605 BC Nabopolassar of Babylon
612 BC Fall of Nineveh & the Assyrian Empire to Nabopolassar. Nineveh burnt to the ground. The Assyrian army fought on for about another 2 years, then was defeated at Haran
624-545 BC Thales of Miletus, Greek philosopher, predicted solar eclipse of 585 BC
609 Jehoahaz reigned 3 months,
taken as a prisoner to Egypt
609 BC Pharaoh Neco marched north to engage Babylon at the battle of Carchemish. Josiah and Judah were in the way. Neco killed Josiah, took Jehoahaz captive to Egypt, where he died. Neco chose another of Josiah's sons, Eliakim, renamed him Jehoiakim, and made him puppet-king of Jerusalem
609-598 Jehoiakim 605-562 BC Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon
605 BC Battle of Carchemish - Nebuchadnezzar defeated Pharaoh Neco, invaded Judah
605 BC Hostages, including Daniel, taken from Jerusalem to Babylon
601 BC Nebuchadnezzar failed in an attack on Egypt. Jehoiakim stopped paying tribute to Nebuchadnezzar; Nebuchadnezzar prepared to retaliate

600 BC Sappho of Lesbos, Greek poetess
ca. 600 BC The Mahabharrata, Hindu Epic religious poetry
598-597 Jehoiachin son of Jehoiakim, reigned 3 months,
taken as a prisoner to Babylon
597 BC Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon invaded Judah again, took Jehoiachin and thousands of Jews, including Ezekiel, as prisoners to Babylon
597-586 Zedekiah
586 taken as a prisoner to Babylon
Daniel and then Ezekiel taken as hostages to Babylon
Jeremiah, survived the Fall of Jerusalem, and was probably taken to Egypt and eventually killed
597 BC Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon made Mattaniah, youngest son of Josiah, king of Judah, and changed his name to Zedekiah
588 BC Zedekiah refused to pay tribute to Nebuchadnezzar, broke his oath of allegiance. Nebuchadnezzar invaded Judah, besieged Jerusalem
Prisoners deported from Judah to Babylon, 597 BC, 587 BC, & 582 BC
594 BC the Reforms of Solon - reorganization of Athenian society; implemented by Peisistratus (further reforms 508-502 BC) by Cleisthenes, leading to Athenian Democracy
586 BC Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon besieged Jerusalem, took Zedekiah as a prisoner to Babylon.
Fall of Jerusalem
Babylonian captivity began

Main Sources : Smithsonian Timelines of Ancient History, The Timetables of History (Bernard Grun)

Go here for Map of the Divided Monarchy

Copyright © 1999 Shirley J. Rollinson, all Rights Reserved

Dr. Rollinson

Station 19, ENMU
Portales, NM 88130

Last Updated: June 28, 2017

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